Breaking of Ensemble Equivalence in Networks

Squartini, Tiziano; Mol}, Joey {De; Hollander}, Frank {Den; Garlaschelli, Diego
It is generally believed that, in the thermodynamic limit, the microcanonical description as a function of energy coincides with the canonical description as a function of temperature. However, various examples of systems for which the microcanonical and canonical ensembles are not equivalent have been identified. A complete theory of this intriguing phenomenon is still missing. Here we show that ensemble nonequivalence can manifest itself also in random graphs with topological constraints. We find that, while graphs with a given number of links are ensemble-equivalent, graphs with a given degree sequence are not. This result holds irrespective of whether the energy is nonadditive (as in unipartite graphs) or additive (as in bipartite graphs). In contrast with previous expectations, our results show that: (1) physically, nonequivalence can be induced by an extensive number of local constraints, and not necessarily by long-range interactions or nonadditivity; (2) mathematically, nonquivalence is determined by a different large-deviation behaviour of microcanonical and canonical probabilities for a single microstate, and not necessarily for almost all microstates. The latter criterion, which is entirely local, is not restricted to networks and holds in general.
Research areas:
Year:
2015
Type of Publication:
Article
Journal:
Physical Review Letters
Volume:
115
Number:
26
Pages:
1-5
ISSN:
1079-7114
DOI:
10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.268701
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